American Bureau of Shipping - American (US) Ship Classification Society. Under the provisions of the US Load-Line Act - it has the authority to assign load lines to vessels registered in the US and other countries.
An oil well where production has ceased.
American Bureau of Shipping- American classification society.
Normally a semisubmersible or jackup (See Jackup), equipped with cabins, catering facilities and office space for up to 800 persons. The installation is normally used for the accommodation and catering for personnel constructing or operating a fixed production platform. An accommodation unit may also be equipped with workshops and/or storage facilities.
American Committee for Flags of Necessity
Any Commercial Grade of Fuel Oil
Gas with pollutants causing a low pH-value. Creates corrosion problems.
Te injection of hydrochloric acid into the production zone in order to stimulate greater yield. The acid corrodes the sedimentary partitions, thereby increasing permeability.
Advisory Committee on Offshore Technology
Area Contingency Plan
American Chemicals Society
Air Draft - correctly used, air draft refers to the distance from the vessel's waterline to the top of the highest mast in an unladen condition. Important to determine whether the vessel can pass under fixed bridges. (Airdraft is also used to refer to the distance from the vessel's light waterline to the top of the hatch coming. This dimension must be known to determine whether the vessel will fit under the fixed shore loading or discharging appliance.)
African/Asian Development Bank
Alaska Departement of Environmental Conservation
Alternative Dispute Resolution - a relatively new innovation whose use has increased in the last decade in response to a general rise in litigation in many jurisdictions and the thereby escalating cost associated therewith, as well as the increased dissatisfaction with the legal process itself. The ADR is a tool designed as a supplement to a given judicial system to provide parties of otherwise good and long term working relationship with a cheaper and in most cases less adversial alternative to lengthy court hearings and arbitrations.
Drilling mud mixed with oxygen to increase efficiency.
Average Freight Rate Assessment - average costs for the freight of oil with tankships. Calculated by the Worldscale Association in London. based on an ongoing registration of all freightrates at particular points in time.
American Freight Rate Association - approximately 80,000 - 105,000 dwt - term for a tank ship of standard size.
Afro-Asian Organization for Economic Cooperation
Asean Free Trade Area (See ASEAN).
Arabian Gulf - also called PG - Persian Gulf.
Agent / Ship's Agent
Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading
Annual General Survey
Antwerp Hambug range
Anchorhandling Tug - vessel employed in the offshore field moving anchors and performing towing operations.
AHT which is also a combined supplyvessel.
Agency for International Development - US organization for civilian aid programmes.
American Institute of Merchant Shipping - the American shipowners' association for the major part of the privately owned tonnage.
Automatic Identification System
Latin-American Integration Association (11 members).
Associacón Latinamericano de Armadores - Latin-American Shipowners' Association (established in March 1963).
Philippine Seafarers' Union, member of TUCP (Trade Union Council of the Philippines).
Association of Maritime Arbitrators, New York
Associated Marine Officers' and Seamen's Union of the Philippines - Filipino union for officers and crew.
Average Most Probable Discharge
Automated Manifest System (For US Departement of Agriculture Entry Processing Procedures for US ports)
Automatic Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System - American warning system for international shipping.
Customs and tariffs union between Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia with common external customs’ tariffs.
Mooring point on the sea bed.
AHT - ship carrying out tasks such as the placing or moving of anchors, as well as towing drilling installations and barges etc. May double as a supply vessel and is in such cases termed Anchorhandling Tug/Supply (AHTS).
Annular Blowout Preventer
Safety valve during drilling operations. Consists of rubber gasket stopping the flow of mud outside the drill string.
The distance between the drill string and the casing or the wall of the drilling hole.
Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (U.S.)
Alaskan North Slope (crude oil)
American National Standard Institute
Association of Offshore Diving Contractors
Assistant On-Scene Coordinator (U.S. Coast Guard)
All Purposes or Additional Premium
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (18 members).
American Petroleum Institute - Founded in 1919, the first oil trade association to include all branches of the petroleum industry
Petroleum industry expression for density of petroleum liquid expressed in API units. - API gravity is obtained by means of simultaneous hydrometer/temperature readings, equated to, and generally expressed at 60ÂºF. The relative density to API gravity relation is: API gravity at 60ÂºF = 141.5 divided by relative density 60ÂºF minus 131.5.
Association of Petroleum Industry Cooperative Managers
Arrival Pilot Station - Signifies a location, on arrival at which vessel will deliver on to a time-charter. Of advantage to a ship owner when compared with TIP, which see.
After Peak Tank
AR / ATRS
American Tanker Rate Schedule-Revised - A Standards of reference published by a group of American tanker brokers and expressed in dollars and cents for thousands of possible voyages. Commonly used for U.S. coast wise voyages.
Antwerpen-Rotterdam-Amsterdam, often used as destination specification.
A method of settling disputes by one or more arbitrators. Quicker and cheaper than taking a case to court.
Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
Alternative Response Technology
Articulated Platform/ Oscillating Platform
An offshore structure fastened to the sea bed by means of an articulated hinge, stabilized by buoyancy elements near the surface. Usually used in connection with loading buoys and flare towers.
Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (U.S.A., Inc.), New York
Association of South East Asian Nations - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore.
Summit Meeting between Asian and European nations.
Asian Shipowners' Forum - shipowners' association for East Asia and Oceania.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Arbeidsgiverforeningen for Skip og Offshorefartoyer - The Employers' Organization for Ships and Offshore Installations (Oslo).
Atlantic Strike Team (U.S. Coast Guard)
Alaska Science and Technology Foundation
American Society for Testing and Materials
Any Time Day or Night
Any Time Day or Night Shinc
ATRS / AR
See AR above
All Time Saved
All Time Saved Both ends
A device installed in a flow, automatically controlled so as to extract a representative sample of the flow.
AUTOMATIC TANK GAUGE
An instrument capable of indicating the level of product from a location remote to the Manual gauge site
Association of Western European Shipbuilders
American Waterways Operators
Bottom Sediment and Water
Barrels per Day
Bills of Lading (Blading) - The basic document between a shipper and a carrier and a shipper and a consignee. It represents the contract of carriage and defines the terms and conditions of carriage. It is the final receipt from the carrier for the goods shown on it and for the condition of the goods. It describes the nature, quantity and weight of the cargo carried. It is also the document of title of the goods shown.
The Bioremediation Action Committee (EPA sub-committee)
Bunkers Adjustment Factor. A kind of fuel surcharge added to the freight rates.
Sea water taken into a vessel's tanks in order to submerge the vessel to proper trim. Proper trim is necessary in order to safely navigate the vessel in light condition. Ballast can be taken into cargo tanks, double bottoms, fore and aft peak tanks and/or segregated ballast tanks (SBT)
Best Available Protection
The hiring or leasing of a vessel from one company to another (the charterer), which provides crew, bunkers, stores, etc. and pays all operating costs.
Bareboat Charter-Party (Demise C/P)
Contract for the hire of an empty ship. All operating costs are covered by the charterer.
Measure for oil. There are 7.1 barrels of oil in one ton. Each barrel is approximately 159 litres. Many abbreviations: b, bbl, bar. Sometimes written with capital letters. Barrels per day (Bd or b/d) specifies the production rate per day.
Bahia Blanca ; Ballast Bonus - A lump sum amount paid to a ship owner, usually as a reward (a bonus) for positioning the vessel at a certain place as a prerequisite for her delivery on to time-charter - e.g.: for a ship ex-Mediterranean Sea, "delivering United States Gulf for a time-charter trip to the Far East at US$ 5,000 daily, plus a ballast bonus of US$ 100,000". Occasionally paid as a reward for accepting redelivery from time-charter in an unfavorable position. A Ballast Bonus may be nett (i.e. free of address commissions and brokerages) or gross (i.e.: subject to deduction of brokerage and address commission). ; Below Bridges: - indicates agreement for a vessel to proceed to that section of a port or a river/canal that is "below bridges" - in other words below the place(s) where height restrictions would prevent a vessel navigating beneath certain overhead obstructions. - e.g.: "Vessel to discharge at one safe berth River Thames, Below Bridges".
Before Breaking Bulk - freight to be paid, i.e. the money deposited into the shipping company's account, prior to discharging.
International code (IMO) for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk
Distance from Bow to Center of Cargo Manifolds
Bar draft ; Bundle
Both Dates Inclusive
Banque Europenne d'Investissement - The European Investment Bank.
Carrying out diving within a diving vessel, shaped like a bell.
To compare someone or something with the best that can be achieved within a specified field.
Belgium, Netherland, Luxembourg
Baltic Freight Index - an index for bulk freight rates.
Berth Grain Charter Party
Bordeaux Hamburg Range
Brake Horse Power
Business and Industry Advisory Committee - OECD's advisory committee. Opposite to TUAC.
Bureau International des Chambres de Commerce - International information bureau for Chambers of Commerce.
British International Freight Association
Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange (London) - an exchange for the buying and selling of futures, based on the BFI.
Baltic International Freight Futures Market
The lower internal part of the hull where the vertical sides meet the bottom. This term also applies to both the inside and the outside of the hull. The internal space can be the lower part of a ship's hold or the engine room and serves as a drainage area where accumulated water can run into and be pumped from.
Bill of Lading (B/L)
Negotiable document issued by shipowner to shipper of goods. Contains terms and conditions of the contract.
The Baltic and International Maritime Council, Copenhagen
Bank for International Settlements (Basel)
British Iron and Steel Corporation
Cast steel heads serving as posts to which mooring lines and cables are secured on ships
Bow Loading Facilities
Denotes an area awarded for test drilling or production. Block sizes may vary.
Uncontrolled blow out of oil or gas due to excessive pressure in the reservoir.
Also called "Christmas Tree", a safety valve placed on the well head.
Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation
British Maritime Law Association
British North America
Basic Ordering Agreement
Abbreviation for Blowout Preventer.
British Offshore Supply Ships Association
British Overseas Trade Board (London)
The forward most part of a vessel. This area usually houses gear lockers and is the end where anchors and mooring equipment are located.
Everyday term for container.
Goods shipped loose in the vessel's hold and not in container.
Bridge Resource Management
British Rigowners' Association
British Shippers Council
British Standards Institution
Butterworth Tank Cleaning System. A mechanical device used for the purpose of cleaning oil tanks by means of high pressure jets of hot water. The apparatus basically consists of double opposed nozzles which rotate slowly bout their horizontal and vertical axis and project two streams of water through all possible angles against all inside surfaces of the space being cleaned. The tank washing machines can deliver sprays of water at various temperatures and pressures which are dictated by the type of cargoes carried and the reasons for cleaning (Quick bottom wash through gas-freeing and tank entry for hot work).
Bulk ship (bulk carrier)
Single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded through large hatchways.
Homogeneous dry cargo (not packaged), e.g. coal, grain, iron ore, etc.
Multipurpose vessel built to carry cargoes of coal as well as oil. Most bulk-oil carriers are reinforced to carry ores and are called OBO-ship (ore/bulk/oil).
A tool, appr. 20 metres long, allowing a certain amount of vertical movement.
Ship's fuel. To take on fuel, is called bunkering.
Vessel especially equipped to bury oil and gas pipelines on the sea bed.
Bureau Veritas - French classification society.
Customs and Excise - British Department for Tariffs and Customs.
Cost and Freight - Goods are to be sold on the basis that the seller arranges their seaborne transportation and delivery to the buyer.
Confederation of Independent States (former Soviet Union - see also FSU)
Cuba / Orinoco / Haiti
Comit des Associations d'Armateurs de la Communaut Europenne (Brussels) - organization for shipping companies from the EU.
Containing Air Breathing Apparatus
Currency And Bunker Adjustment Factor
Coastal trade, i.e. the movement of goods by ship between ports on the same coast or between ports within the same country.
Central American Common Market
Cash Against Documents
Currency Adjustment Factor
Council of All Japanese Exporters' Association
The arching of the deck upward measured at the centerline in inches per foot beam.
Condition Assessment Programme - inspection of a vessel to determine its technical condition.
Vessel which is too large to navigate the Suez Canal to and from the Arabian Gulf, therefore being forced to voyage around the Cape of Good Hope - approximately 80,000 - 175,000 dwt.
Routing a vessel around the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
Capital intensive tonnage
Vessel demanding relatively large capital investments, e.g. cruiseships, gas- and chemical tankers, etc.
Collision Avoidance System - Electronic system commonly used to prevent collisions in USA inland navigable waterways.
Pipe with thick walls placed in the drill hole and cemented in place. Prevents the hole from caving in.
Council of American- flag Ship Operators (eight liner companies which left the AIMS).
A raised bridge running fore and aft from the Midship House, also called "walkway". It affords safe passage over the pipe lines and other deck obstructions.
The walls of the drill hole disintegrating and filling up the hole.
Collective Bargaining Agreement (tariff agreement) - CBA for Filipino seamen between AMOSUP and ASO is an example. The term is used for any kind of tariff agreement, both for NIS-ships and foreign flagged ships.
Carbon Black Feed Stock
Conventional Buoy Mooring
Commodity Box Rate
Clean Ballast Tanks
Chemical Carriers Association
Comité des Armateurs de France - the French shipowners' association.
Customs Co-operation Council - forum for international cooperation between customs authorities, attempting to create harmony and uniformity of approach.
Commander Coast Guard District Eight
Cargo Control Room
China Classification Society
Clean Coastal Waters (Long Beach CA cooperative)
Customary Dispatch; Chart Datum - a water level calculated on the lowest tide that can conceivably occur, and used as a basis for chart measurements. Such low tide is known also as the Lowest Astronomic Tide (LAT), and presupposes that at the very worst, there would always be that depth of available water at that particular spot.
Chemical Data Sheet
Conseil de l'Europe (Strasbourg)
Certificate of Equivalent Competency
Maritime insurers central association.
The level beneath Rotary Table on a rig. On a jack-up this means the well-head and BOP. On a floating rig, it is the deck from which the guidelines are controlled. May also have a Marine Riser.
Conference Europeenne des Ministres des Transports - OECD-affiliated organization for dealing with transportation problems on rails, roads and inland waterways.
European Standardization Organization
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners' Associations (London).
Council of European and Japanese (Nipponese) National Shipowners' Association
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (U.S.)
Customs Exam Station(U.S. Customs designation for office granting import licence on USDA approved cargoes)
Code of Federal Regulations (U.S.)
Container Freight Station ; Cubic Feet per Second
Colliery Guarantee Terms - the ship is to be loaded in accordance with the terms of the colliery (coal mine) guarantee, which is a contract between the colliery and the charterers - occasionally between the colliery and the ship owner - describing applicable laytime, excepted periods, holiday and demurrage
Cargo owner or another person/company who hires a ship.
To hire a ship to carry goods/cargo.
Shipbroker acting on behalf of charterer in negotiations leading to the chartering of a ship.
Contract for the hire of a ship or space in a ship ; Transport contract between shipowner and shipper of goods.
Special tanker built for the transportation of bulk chemicals. Newer tonnage is equipped with stainless steel tanks. Ships may carry many different cargoes simultaneously, because each tank has its own pump and pipeline system for loading and unloading.
Charterer's Option - May refer, for example, to Charterer's option to discharge at a number of ports - e.g.: "up to three ports Taiwan, in Charterer's Option". Or perhaps relative to a cargo size margin - e.g.: "10,000 tonnes, 5 per cent more or less chopt". (See MOLCO).
Clean Island Council (Hawaiian cooperative)
Cost, Insurance, Freight. Designates that the cargo is carried free of charge for the buyer; seller pays all transportation costs.
Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission
Cost, Insurance and Freight, Free Out
Channel Industries Mutual Aid Association
Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council
Commonwealth of Independant States
Cook Inlet Spill Prevention, Inc. (Alaskan cooperative)
Civil Liability Convention
CLC - see Oil spill compensation.
Completely Knocked Down - Said of cargo, normally of cars, shipped in pieces and cased, to be assembled at destination.
Organization which carries out surveys of newbuildings and at regular intervals when in commission, sets and maintains quality standards for ships and their equipment. Acts on behalf of the flag state's maritime authorities.
Civil Liability Convention of 1969.
The residue that adheres to the inner surface and structure of a container, such as a tank after having been emptied
Closed Loading System
Comite Maritime International - the international association for maritime law.
Contract of Affreightment - quantity contract: An agreement between shipowner and shipper concerning the freight of a defined amount of cargo. The shipowner chooses ship.
Paint (corrosion protection)
Corps Of Engineers
The narrow, empty space between two adjacent watertight or oil-tight compartments. This space is designed to isolate the two compartments from each other and/or provide additional buoyancy. It prevents any liquid contents of one compartment from entering the other in the event of a bulkhead failure. In oil tankers, cargo spaces are usually isolated from the rest of the ship by cofferdams fitted at both ends of the tank body.
Certificate of Financial Responsibility - regarding the transport of oil to USA. Vessels must have a certificate guaranteeing the payment of up to USD 1,500 per dwt. in case of oil spills.
Certificate Of Financial Responsibility
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (USA).
A thick piece of pipe closest to the bit.
Ships for the transportation of both liquid and dry bulkcargoes. There are two main types: Ore carriers and bulk-tank-ships.
Shipbroker's remuneration, normally 1.25 per cent of gross freight. Calculated also for sales and purchases of vessels at one per cent of purchase price.
Shipbroker's fee - often 1,25% of the gross freight rate. In the case of a purchase/sale, often 1% of the purchase sum.
Making the hole ready for production.
Casing with large diametre - normally the first first lining or guide pipe fitted during the drilling operation.
Ship specially designed to carry standard containers (TEUs). Generally called Cellular container ship. The larger part of the cargo-carrying capacity consists of containers carried on deck or in cells in the hold. Containers are lifted on and off with special cranes and are then called lift on-lift off-ships (see special entry). Container ships are generally fast, operating regular sailing schedules (lines).
Contract of Affreightment, c.o.a.
Contract for the hire of a ship. The shipowner undertakes the transport of certain amounts of goods for one or several voyages.
Custom Of The Port - cargo to be loaded or discharged as per custom of the port. Thus no specific rate of cargo handling would be entered in the contract, the owner relying on the vagaries of local practices and customs. Presumably he will ask for a higher freight rate to protect him against possible delays.
Crude Oil Washing - a method of cleaning tanks using oil from the vessel's cargo. COW is normally used when a tanker is discharging. Oil is taken from the tanks and pumped through a special line to fixed or semi-fixed tank washing machines where it is sprayed against all inside surfaces of the tank. This procedure removes any cargo which is "clinging" to the surfaces of the tank.
Clean Petroleum Products
Customary Quick Dispatch - the vessel is to be loaded or discharged as quickly as is customary and possible - se CD
China Corporation Register (Taiwan) - Taiwanese Skip Classification Agency.
Crane and Construction Vessel/Unit
Normally a ship, a barge or a semisubmersible, equipped for the construction and maintenance of fixed installations. May sometimes offer accommodation. Other services offered are: Storage facilities, the supply of water, compressed air and electricity, office space, communications center, helicopter landing pad, etc.
Clean River Cooperative (Portland OR - Columbia River)
Current Rate Discharge (see Current Rate)
Contract Regarding a Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution - a voluntary system established by oil companies in order to "plug" holes in IMO-conventions concerning the financial settlement of claims in connection with oil spills. The oil companies' supplemet to TOVALOP.
Contract Regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution
Current Rate Load (see Current Rate)
The freight of cargoes between foreign ports. Nearly 95 per cent of the Norwegian-owned tonnage is cross-trading.
Croatian Register of Shipping (Hravatski Registar Brodova) - Croatian Ship Classification Society
Unrefined oil directly from the well.
Passenger vessel carrying passengers on trips between various ports, normally with the same starting and ending port. Standards of accommodation and recreation normally high.
Container Safety Convention - convention for the promotion of safer containers.
Closed Shelter Deck Ship
Consultative Shipping Group - forum for the discussion of shipping policy on Government level. Fourteen West-European participants and Japan.
Closed System Measurement
Centistrokes - Measure of the viscosity of oils such as fuel oils. The greater the number of centistrokes, the higher the viscosity of a grade of oil.
Chamber of Shipping War Risks, CP clauses.
Chemical Transportation Advisory Committee
Constructive Total Loss - loss or damage to goods or to a ship which is such that the cost of repair or recovery would exceed their value when repaired or recovered.
The most important commercial measurement when the cargo is so lightweight that the ship is filled to capacity without being loaded to the load line (free board). Capacity is measured in cubic meters or cubic feet (cu.ft.).
A Term whereby the ship owner contracts to pay the current rate costs of loading and/or discharge.
Consecutive Voyages - a series of consecutive voyages, usually laden from Port A to Port B, returning in ballast condition, and so on until completion of final cargo discharge.
Colliery Working Days - a laytime term describing normal working days of a colliery (coal mine), including those in a strike or other actions.
Deals, Battens and Boards. Unit of measure of timber.
Deals, Battens and Boards. Unit of measure of timber.
Money payable by shipper or charterer to shipowner or shipping line for failing to load the amount of cargo stipulated in contract.
The largest weight of cargo, bunkers and stores a ship is able to carry. Expressed in metric tons (1,000 kg) or long tons (1,016 kg). The deadweight tonnage is the most important commercial measurement. Normally the maximum payload for a ship is three to ten per cent lower than the deadweight, due to the weight of bunkers and stores, etc
Slow, controlled reduction of pressure inside a pressure chamber to prevent divers from suffering the "bends" after a too fast ascent.
The removal of oil and gas from the drilling mud which may then be used again.
Dehydration Plant/ Water Separation Plant
Various types of equipment for the "drying" of gas or oil.
Delivery and Redelivery
Demurrage - A fixed sum, per day or per hour, agreed to be paid for the detention of the vessel under charter at the expiration of the allowed laytime.
Money paid to shipowner by charterer, shipper or receiver, for failing to complete loading/discharging within time allowed according to charter-party.
Platform worker handling the drill stem in the tower.
Disaster Emergency Services
A hole which intentionally is not drilled straight down.
Dead Freight ; Direction finder
Demurrage/Free Dispatch - An expression confirming that a ship owner may be entitled to demurrage for port delay to his vessel, but that no dispatch is applicable in case laytime is saved - e.g.: "$ 2,000 Demurrage/Free Dispatch". Common in short-sea and other trades where turn-a-round in port is speedy; for example, ro-ro vessels.
Directorate General - the term used for the various departments of the EU-Commission.
DHD / D½D
Demurrage/Half Dispatch - This term, often found in voyage charter negotiations, signifies that dispatch money is to be paid at half the daily demurrage rate.
Department of Highways and Public Transportation
The tip of the drill stem reinforced with diamond to prolong its lifetime.
Depth of liquid = to American expression: gauge
An instrument to measure deviations in the vertical component in the terrestrial magnetic field. Used to determine the position of the sediment and its structure, and to measure the deviation of the drilling hole.
see Deviated Well.
Dirty B/L - Bill of Lading with Captain's note of protest as to the condition of the cargo.
Dansk Internationalt Skibsregister - Danish International Shipregister.
Dispatch - An agreed amount per day or per hour agreed to be paid to terminals or charterer of a vessel for prompt turnaround of a vessel. Usually half the amount of the agreed demurrage rate. (Demurrage - Half Dispatch).
Remuneration payable by shipowner to charterer, shipper or receiver for loading/discharging in less than the time allowed according to charter-party.
Drilling hole which is prepared for the re-injection of produced saline into the reservoirs.
Bell shaped construction for deep sea diving.
Diving Support Vessel
Ship with diving equipment on board, carrying out various types of diving operations. May also be equipped with remotely operated or controlled sub-sea robots (Remote Operated Vehicle - ROV).
Deutsche Schiffs-Revision und Klassifikation
Dynamic Non-Member Economies (referring to dynamic countries which are not members of the OECD)
Det norske maskinistforbund - the Norwegian association for Ships' engineers.
Det Norske Veritas (NV) - Norwegian classification society.
Det Norske Veritas Petroleum Services
U.S. Department Of Agriculture
Document of Compliance
U.S. Department Of Defense
U.S. Department Of Energy
U.S. Department Of Health
U.S. Department Of the Interior
Voice distortion due to the inhalation of the oxygen-helium mixture used in deep sea diving.
Dropping Outward Pilot - frequently used provision in a time charter to determine the time and place of redelivery of a ship to the owner by the charterer. The hire ceases at the moment the pilot disembarks.
U. S. Department Of Transportation
Department Of Transportation Classification
Department of Trade and Industry, UK
Dynamic Positioning Officer
Dirty Petroleum Products
Dynamic Positioning System
Danmarks Rederiforening - the Danish Shipowners' Association.
The depth of a ship in the water. This distance is measured from the bottom of the ship to the surface of the water. Draft marks are painted or welded on the surface of the vessels vertical plating. They are placed forward, aft and amidships on both sides of the vessel. At the amidships draft the official Load Line marker (Plimsoll mark) is also found. This Plimsoll mark designates the vessels maximum drafts allowed under various conditions.
One-bladed drillbit for drilling in soft sediments.
Horizontal error during drilling operations.
Pipes with thin walls used during drilling. Each section is normally approximately 10 metres long.
The string driving the bit into the sediments.
Drill Stem Test
Standard procedure to test oil or gas discoveries during drilling.
see Drill Stem.
The person in charge during drilling operations.
Barge equipped for drilling operations in smooth seas. Normally not equipped with own propulsion machinery. Max. drilling depth approximately 150 meters.
Drilling Fluid, Drilling Mud
A special mixture used during drilling operations to lubricate the bit and balance the pressure in the drilling hole.
Drilling tower with turntable and mud pumping system. May be installed on an offshore rig or placed on a fixed or floating offshore installation like a drillship.
The engineer in charge.
Service vessel with personnel and equipment to the drilling rig ; Ship serving drilling installations which are depending on a ship or a barge for storage, accommodation, etc.
Ship equipped with drilling rig and its own propulsion machinery. Kept in position by Dynamic Positioning Equipment. Operating in waters with a max. depth of 2,000 metres.
Grain, coal, ore, general cargo, etc.
De samarbeidende organisasjoner - cooperation between DNMF and NS for mobile offshore installations (Norway).
Deutsche Schiffs Revision und Klassifikation - German classification society.
Diving Support Vessel
Deep Tank - Tank situated between the holds of a ship, primarily used for water ballast but capable of carrying water or fuel.
Dead Weight/Dead Weight Tons
Dead Weight All Told. The total deadweight of a vessel at any time, or estimated against a particular draft. Includes cargo, bunkers, constant weight, etc.
Dead Weight Cargo Capacity ; Dead Weight Carrying Capacity: Weight of cargo which a ship is able to carry when immersed to the appropriate load line, expressed in tonnes or tons.
Keeping the ship's position with the help of automatically controlled propellers.
The Oil Industry International Exploration and Production Forum (London). Statoil, Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum are full Norwegian members, while OLF is associated member.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva (UN)
European Court of Justice (EU)
Economic Commission for Latin America, UN-body under ECOSOC.
European Conference of Ministers of Transport
Economical and Social Council of the United Nations, New York - UN's main body for economic questions. The regional commissions - ECLA, ESCAP, ECA, etc. - answer to ECOSOC.
East Coast South America ; European Community Shipowners' Association (Brussels)
European Coal and Steel Community
European Currency Units. A financial unit used for EU accounting.
European Economic Area
European Free Trade Association of Non-common Market Countries.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and South Pacific - under ECOSOC.
Planned ship register in the EU.
Export-Import Bank of the United States to promote American exports.
Hole drilled during the search for new oil reserves.
Federation of American Controlled Shipping - organization for US companies with ships under FOC, mainly the Liberian.
UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (Rome)
Federation of Asian Shipowners' Associations
A short-sea vessel used to fetch and carry goods and containers to and from deep sea vessels.
Federation of Norwegian Ships Officers organizations (NMB in Norwegian)
Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (same as two TEU).
Federation Internationale des Associations de Transifaires et Assimiles (Zurich) - International association of forwarding agents.
Free in and Out - charterer pays for loading/discharging.
Fish - object
A fragment of a drill bit, broken drill pipe, or other object lodged at the bottom of the drilling hole, preventing continued drilling.
The work of removing a Fish.
Successful conclusion of negotiations between shipowner and charterer, normally with the aid of a shipbroker.
National legislation reserving cargo for own ships.
Flag of convenience (FOC)
Term used by labor organizations about countries allowing unlimited registration of foreign-owned ships in order to achieve low wage levels and low or no taxation payable to the flag state. Some FOC- flag states had previously very lax control routines, or no control at all, concerning the vessels' technical standard and their seaworthiness.
The burning of non-commercial oil and gas on the production platform or vessel.
Flexible Joint - or Ball-joint
The bottom part of the Marine Riser construction, utilized during drilling from floating rig or vessel. Allows a certain angle deviation when the vessel or rig is positioned.
Special ship which may be submerged to allow cargo to be floated on or off, i.e. jack-up platforms which may be carried "piggy-back"-fashion on a flo-flo-ship.
The initial production phase.
Federal Maritime Commission - American independant control authority regulating liner services to the USA.
Free on Board - seller is responsible for delivering cargo to the port, paying also for the loading.
Flag of Convenience
Federation of National Associations of Shipbrokers and Agents
A clause limiting responsibility for charterer, shipper or receiver of cargo.
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Unit
Finlands Rederifrening - the Finnish Shipowners' Association.
Fast Rescue Boat
Ship inspected and cleared by the health authorities of a country.
Floating storage and offloading unit
Floating storage unit
See Oil spill compensation.
The technique of mixing gas into the oil flow in order to enhance the flow.
Gas Oil Ratio
The ratio between the produced gas in cubic feet, and the oil measured in barrels.
Secondary Recovery Technique with the re-injection of "dried" and condensate-free gas to maintain pressure in the reservoir.
Special ship for the transportation of condensed (liquid) gases. The most important cargoes are: -LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas (mostly methane). -LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas (propane, butane). -Ammonia. -Ethylene. On board, gases are kept liquid with highly effective insulation (thermos bottle-principle), by high pressure or by low temperature. LNG-ships must be able to carry cargoes with temperatures as low as -163°C.
The discovery of hydrocarbons with a high Gas Oil Ratio.
General Agreement on Trade in Services - part of GATT - concerns trading in services, incl. shipping.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Geneva).
Gravity Base Structure
General Council of British Shipping - the amalgamation of the former BSF - British Shipping Federation - and the UK Chamber of Shipping, established 1976.
Goods unpackaged or packaged, but not shipped in bulk.
Detailed investigation for structure and type of sediment.
Geographical Rotation - sequence in which ship calls at ports on her itinerary.
German International Shipregister
Germanischer Lloyd - German classification society.
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
Curved section of pipeline where the drill mud reaches the flexible hosepipe for further transportation to the swivel.
Grain Capacity - a ship's grain-carrying capacity.
Platform firmly placed on the seabed without any special fastenings due to its high specific gravity. Several gravity structures have been installed in deep parts of the North Sea.
Gross Tonnage GT
(0.2+0.02Â·log10V)Â·V, where V is the volume in cubic metres of all enclosed spaces on board.
Dry bulk vessel of approximately 35,000 - 50,000 dwt.
Dry bulk vessel or product tanker, 15,000 - 50,000 dwt.
Hydrostatically Balanced Loading - balancing oil and water pressure preventing oil leaks in case of grounding. HBL reduces the cargo carrying capacity bu appr. 7 per cent.
Grain filling the ship to full deadweight capacity.
C/P where the charterer gets ownership of the vessel at the conclusion of the C/P.
Hellenic Register of Shipping - Greek classification society.
High Speed Craft
High Speed Light Craft
Highspeed Sea Service - fast ferry concept with double- or multihulled vessels with carrying capacity of up to 1500 passengers and around 400 cars.
International Association of Classification Societies
International Association of Drilling Contractors (Houston/Amsterdam)
International Association of Ports and Harbours.
International Bunker Industry Association (Kingston on Thames).
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Washington) - the World Bank.
International Chamber of Commerce
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association (London)
International Committee on the Organization of Traffic at Sea (London)
International Committee on Passenger Lines (for the CENSA-countries).
International Chamber of Shipping (London)
International Finance Corporation
International Federation of ShipMasters Association (London)
International Law Association
UN's International Labour Organization (Geneva)
International Maritime Bureau - bureau established by the ICC to combat fraud in the shipping industry.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code - rules for the labelling of dangerous goods at sea.
International Maritime Employers' Committee
International Maritime Industry Forum - a forum for banks and shipbuilders with the purpose of solving problems in connection with surplus tanker tonnage.
International Maritime Organization (London) - UN's maritime authority.
International Pilots' Association
International Maritime Union (Latin-American seamen's union with US affiliations.)
Hole drilled to inject water or gas into the reservoir in order to maintain pressure. Also called Service Well.
International Maritime Satellite Organization (London)
A type of BOP which is installed on the drill stem.
International Northern Sea Route Programme - comprehensive, multi-national, multi-disciplinary five-year research programme investigating commercial navigation through the North-East Passage.
An apparatus with various measuring instruments placed inside the pipeline. Transported along with the oilflow
International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (London) - Opposite number to INTERTANKO.
Carriage of goods employing various modes of transport, i.e. sea/land, rail/sea, etc., between sender and receiver. Also called Multimodal Transport.
International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (Oslo)
International Organization of Employers
International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund
International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
International Shipping Federation (London) - cooperation of maritime employers' associations.
International Safety Management Code
International Ship Managers' Association
International Standards Organization (London)
International Support Vessels Owners' Association (London)
International Transport Workers' Federation (London)
List of a ship's ports of call.
International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. (London) - manages TOVALOP and cooperates closely with CRISTAL.
International Tanker Service - planned cooperation in the market between independent tanker owners.
International Wheat Agreement
The lower part of the production system from the seabed to the lower deck module.
Movable installation consisting of a large deck with legs which may be jacked up. During operation, the legs are resting on the seabed, and the vessel "jacked up", leaving the deck in secure position high above the surface of the sea. When moved, the legs are retracted and the installation floates. Usually not equipped with own propulsion machinery. (Max. water depths 110 to 120 metres.) Normally used as a drilling rig.
Jones Act Reform Coalition
Junior Dynamic Positioning Officer
The act of throwing goods or pumping cargo overboard to lighten a ship to improve stability in an emergency.
Two or more shipping companies jointly operating a service.
A sudden increase in the drill mud pressure from below. A kick may in extreme cases develop into a Blow-out.
The increase of the counterpressure in the well, e.g. achieved by using mud with higher specific gravity.
Measure of speed for ships, i.e. one nautical mile (1,852 metres) per hour.
Limited partnership. A form of shipfinancing very popular in Norway before the tax reform in 1991. Now almost obsolete.
Kesatuan Pelant Indonesia - Indonesian seamen's union.
Korean Register of Shipping - Korean Ship Classification Society
Knot - measure of speed of a ship, equal to one nautical mile (6,080 feet or 1,852 meters) per hour
Keel to Top of Mast - distance from the keel of the Vessel to the top of the mast, also referred to as Airdraft, which indicates the clearance needed for the Vessel to pass under air structures above the waterways.
The main machinery's break-kW + the vessel's gross tonnage (GT) according to the vessel's papers. Used by the NSA when calculating wage levels.
Letter of Credit ; Laydays/Canceling: See LAYCAN
Last Three Cargoes
Latin America Free Trade Association
Used particularly in connection with the transportation of trailers. One lanemetre is one metre of deck, with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 metres.The capacity of ships built for the transportation of new automobiles is normally expressed by the number of cars carried, or by the area of deckspace, in square metres.
Lighter Aboard Ship, i.e. ships which can carry lighters "piggy-back" fashion.
Latitude ; Lowest Astronomic Tide: see Chart Datum
Lay Barge or Pipe Laying Barge
Vessel laying pipelines on the seabed.
Laydays/Canceling - a spread of dates - e.g.: "Laydays 1st September/Canceling 15th September," between which dates a vessel is to present for loading. Too early and she will probably have to wait. Too late and she risks being canceled by the charterers.
Ships are laid-up when rates are too low for profitable trading. Laid-up vessels are moored or anchored with a minimum watch crew on board.
Long Beach ; Lower Buchanan
Length Between Perpendiculars - the length of the vessel measured between the forward part of the stern to the after part of the rudder post.
Less than Container Load
Light Displacement Tonnage
When a ship is leased, the owner may in fact utilize it as in a bareboat or hire-purchase-C/P, but without entering into a charter-party-contract. The price is agreed between the shipping company (lessee) and the vessel's legal owner - the leasing company (lessor). The agreed fee will normally give the lessor a return on the investment with a profit during the leasing period. When the agreed period expires, the lessee may extend the leasing, but at a reduced fee (e.g. 1/12 of previous fee), or purchase the vessel at its estimated value.
Lawful General Merchandise
Liner In Free Out
Vessel serving a regular defined route or trade, following a published sailing schedule.
Two or more shipping companies operating a service in common between designated areas. Conference partners agree special freight rates and terms for the trade, in order to stabilize market and service.
Casing which does not reach quite up to the well-head.
Cargoships operating regular schedules between advertised ports.
The leaning of the vessel to the port or starboard.
Long Length Additional
International Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims
London Maritime Arbitrators Association, London
Liquefied Natural Gas
Length Over All. The extreme length of the vessel measured from the foremost part to the aftermost part of the hull.
Letter of Credit ; Letter Of Compliance
Lloyd's Open Form - standardized salvage contract.
Lloyd's Open Form - standardized salvage contract. Current version is called LOF-95. Effective January 1 1995. Revised and updated version of the LOF-90, and reflects changes resulting from the UK Merchant Shipping (Salvage and Pollution) Act 1994. Other changes have also been incorporated in this new LOF-95.
Letter Of Financial Responsibility
An apparatus for measuring the speed of a vessel through the water. ; An entry made in a log book to record any event or occurrence during the logging period.
Letter of Indemnity - a guarantee issued by the receiver named in the Bill of Lading, Holding the carrier harmless if he is ordered to release the cargo without presentation of original Bill of Lading.
Lift On/Lift Off - a term describing the method of loading and discharging cargo by ship or shore gear.
Lift on-lift off-ship. Containers or other goods are lifted on board and ashore by cranes.
Letter Of Response Intention
Load On Top - the concept of allowing hydrocarbon material recovered during tank washing to be commingled with the next cargo.
Letter of Undertaking - a guarantee issued by a P & I Club or insurer, in cases where a vessel is involved in an accidents or damage to cargo. The LOU guarantees settlement of any proven claims, thus allowing the vessel to sail without unnecessary delays.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Last Port Of Call
Lloyd's Register of Shipping - British classification society.
LS & D
Landing, Storage and Delivery
Liberian Shipping Council
Low Sulphur Waxy Residue
Long Ton - ton of 2,240 pounds, equivalent to 1,016 metric tons (M/T) ; Liner Terms - the responsibility and cost of loading, carrying and discharging cargo is that of the carrier, from the moment the goods are placed alongside the carrying vessel in readiness for loading, until discharged alongside at their destination. Time spent cargo-handling is also at the carrier's risk.
LayTime Saved - dispatch to be paid for laytime saved.
Low Water Ordinary Neap Tides
Low Water Ordinary Spring Tides - a measure of water depth at the low water mark on ordinary (i.e.: not exceptional) Spring tides. See Chart Datum and MLWS.
Meter or Measure
A company (often third party) assuming responsibility for the operation and administration of a vessel, i.e. crewing, technical operations and maintenance.
List of all cargo on board (Cargo Manifest). Term used also for passenger list on cruise vessels, passenger ferries, etc
Maritime Administration (USA) - authority under the US department for Trade. Handles subsidies etc. to American shipyards and shipping companies.
Large diametre casing, consisting of many pipe sections coupled together, normally with floating elements on the outside. Installed between the Marine BOP and the drilling rig.
Norsk Marinteknisk Forskningsinstitutt A/S (Trondheim) - Norwegian maritime research institution.
An inquiry conducted by maritime and legal authorities following an accident or near-accident at sea, resulting in a maritime declaration.The purpose of such hearings is to uncover the cause of accident or mishap. The inquiry is primarily conducted between members of the crew, but may also involve bystanders who may shed light on the events. The maritime inquiry serves three purposes according to Norwegian maritime law: -Enables maritime authorities to consider amending or improving existing rules and regulations in order to prevent similar accidents. -Determines whether or not someone should be prosecuted for criminal neglect or breach of rules. -Uncovers liabilities in connection with insurance claims.
The International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships (London) - 1973 (as modified by the Protocol of 1978)
Molded Breath - the breath of the hull at the widest part, measured between the outer surfaces of the frames.
Motor Blocks Turning
Marine Custody Transfer
Marine Custody Transfer Measurement - the measurement activity involving a marine custody transfer (MCT)
Mean Draft - the average of the drafts measured at the bow and the stern. ; Molded Depth - the depth measured between the top of the keel, or lower surface of the frame at the center line, and the top of the upper deck beam at the gunwale.
Marine Diesel Oil
Mandatory Excess Insurance Facility - Norwegian-Swedish-Greek proposal to solve the COFR-question.
Maximum Most Probable Discharge (U.S., related to oil spill)
Minerals Management Service (U.S.)
Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit
More Or Less - refers to a cargo size option - say, "10,000 tonnes, 5 per cent more or less" - usually clarifying whose option to select the final cargo size
More Or Less Charterer's Option
More Or Less Charterer's Option
More or less owner's option - a margin which the shipowner has for the amount of cargo a vessel should carry. I.e. "30,000 tons 5 per cent moloo" means that the vessel can load between 28,500 and 31,500 tons.
Platform in the drilling tower where the Derrick Man is handling the drill stem.
Type of rig where the foundation consists of a cylindric stem from the seabed to the surface.
Equalizes level variations during drilling from floating rigs or cranes.
Memorandum Of Understanding
Hole in the Derrick platform where the next section of drill stem is placed awaiting being coupled to the drill stem.
Marine Preservation Association (supports MSRC)
Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (API)
Multipurpose Service Vessel
Maritime Regulatory Reform
Maritime Safety Committee (IMO, London)
Material Safety Data Sheet
Marine Safety Information System
Marine Safety Office (USCG)
Marine Spill Response Corp., The. (OSRO)
Metric Tonne - a tonne of 2,204 pounds or 1,000 kilograms, equivalent to 0.9842 long tons.
Maritime Transport Committee (OECD)
The sea bed, the borderline between the water and solid sediments.
Tank containing the drill mud.
The weight of the drill mud in pounds per gallon. Light mud: 8 pounds/gln; heavy mud: 14 pounds/gln.
Maritime Union of Indian Officers
General cargo ship which can also carry containers.
Not Always Afloat But Safe Aground - most owners will agree only that their vessel (especially deep-sea vessels) proceed only to ports where there is sufficient water to remain always afloat, so as to avoid the risk of hull damage. There are areas and ports, however, where water depth is restricted but, the bottom being soft mud, it is customary for ships to safely lie on the bottom at certain states of the tide - e.g.: River Plate. In such a case, owners will probably agree to proceed NAABSA.
North-American Free Trade Agreement
National Response Corporation (OSRO)
Norwegian Asian Seafarers' Conference
North-Atlantic Treaty Organization - Western defence alliance.
Navigation Safety Advisory Council
National Cargo Bureau
National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (U.S.)
No Deadfreight For Charterer's Account Provided Minimum Quantity Supplied.
The opposite of Spring Tides (which see). Neap Tides occur when the tidal range is at its lowest - in other words during periods of relatively low high tides, and of relatively high low tides. A vessel that is prevented from berthing or from sailing with a full cargo or, indeed, is trapped in a berth by the onset of neap tides, is said to have been "neaped".
Not East Of But Including Greece
OBQ less free water in cargo, slop tanks and lines, and water in suspension in slop tanks.
Net Tonnage NT
(0.2+0.02Â·log10(Vc))Â·VcÂ·(4d/3D)2, for passenger ships the following formula is added: 1.25Â·(GT+10000)/10000Â·(N1+(N2/10)), where Vc is the volume of the cargo holds, D is the distance between the ship's bottom and the uppermost deck, d is the draught, N1 is the number of cabin passengers, and N2 is the number of deck passengers.
The National Environmental Technology Applications Center (Pittsburgh, PA)
Opposite to Gross Terms. Cargo-handling is the responsibility and for the account of the charterer or the cargo seller.
Not East of West Coast of Italy
Norwegian Friendship Development - Norwegian recruiting office in Manila.
North of (Cape) Hatteras
Navy/Industry Digital Data Exchange Standards Committee
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Norsk Internasjonalt Skipsregister (Bergen) - Norwegian International Ship Register.
National Institute of Standards & Technology
NK / NKK
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai ( Japanese Ship Classification Society)
Norsk Maritimt Befalskartell - (see FENSO)
National Maritime Union (USA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - (A U.S. agency incorporating the National Weather Service)
Company established in a country where corporate taxes are less than two thirds of Norwegian corporate tax, and Norwegian interests own or control minimum 50 per cent of the shares. Norwegian participants in such companies are taxed in Norway for their share of profits (Â§7 in Norwegian Tax Law).
New Orleans, Louisiana
Notice Of Protest - a letter issued by any participant in a voyage citing any condition with which issue is taken. This serves as a written record that the particular action or finding was questioned at the time of occurrence. For example a declaration made by the Master before a notary public or consular official when through stress of weather, there has been or the master fears that there might have been, damage to the vessel or cargo, or occurrences that exceeded or breached the warranties in the Charter Party. Copies are frequently demanded by insurance underwriters in the event of a claim.
Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, Stavanger - Norwegian trade union for oil industry workers.
Skipsregisteret, Bergen. Often termed Norsk Ordin'rt Register - the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register.
Notice Of Readiness - notice served by the Master to inform the terminal/charterer that the vessel is ready in all respects to load or discharge cargo.
Nordisk Komité for Passasjerskip - Nordic forum for passengership and ferry companies and shipowners' associations.
Not Otherwise Specified
Net Observed Volume - the total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding S&W, and free water at observed temperature and pressure.
National Petroleum Association - usually with reference to ASTM D-155 color scale, for instance "undarker than 2.5 NPA", which can be described as "extra lemon pale"
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (U.S.)
National Pollution Funds Center
National Petroleum Refiners' Association
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (U.S.)
Norges Rederiforbund (Oslo) - Norwegian Shipowners' Association (NSA).
National Response Center (USCG)
National Resource Damage Assessment (pronounced: NERDA)
Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Great Lakes Environments
Natural Resources Defense Council
The National Resources Defense Council (U.S.)
National Response Team (U.S.) ; Net Registered or Register Tonnage
Norsk Styrmandsforening - the former Norwegian association for ships' mates.
Norsk Sjomannsforbund - Norwegian Seafarers' Union, (also Norsk Skibsforerforbund - Norwegian Association of Master Mariners)
National Strike Force (U.S.)
National Strike Force Coordination Center (U.S.)
North Sea Offshore Authority Forum.
National Shipbuilding Research Program
National Seafarers' Union (Sri Lanka)
Net Standard Volume - the total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding S&W and free water, corrected by the appropriate temperature correction factor (Ct1) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density or density to a standard temperature such as 60ÂºF or 15ÂºC and also corrected by the applicable pressure correction factor (Cp1) and meter factor.
Net Tonnage - the volumetric cargo capacity of a ship expressed on the basis of 100 cubic feet tot he ton. On passenger vessels it also includes space used by passengers.
Norwegian Training Center (Manila)
National Technical Information Service (U.S.)
National Transportation Safety Board
British trade union for officers and crew.
National Union of Seamen - British seamen's union.
National Union of Seamen of India
Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular
Non Vessel Owning Company
Non Vessel Owning Common Carrier
National Weather Center
New York Not North of George Washington Bridge
New York Produce Exchange Time Charter Party Form
Ore Carrier ; Open Charter
Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
Organisation of African Unity
Ore Bulk Oil - a vessel constructed in such a way that it may carry various bulk cargoes of ore, oil, grains and other bulk products.
Vessel built for the carriage of diversified bulkcargoes (i.e. Oil/Bulk/Ore).
On Board Quantity - refers to cargo, bunkers or fresh water on board the ship prior to commencement of a charter, a voyage or loading operation. Also cargo tank quantities of any material aboard a ship after deballasting, immediately prior to loading. Can include oil, oil/water emulsion, water, non-liquid hydrocarbons and slops. (NET OBQ:OBQ less free water in cargo, slop tanks and lines, and water in suspension in slop tanks)
Oil Companies' International Marine Forum (London)
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - 25 member countries.
For shipowning companies, O.A. include activities connected with the exploration for, development of and operation of oil and gas fields at sea. Most important are: Collecting seismic data, test drilling, field development, towing and anchor handling, the supply service, transportation of equipment and modules, heavylifts, diving operations and underwater work, the use of ROVs, pipelaying, operation of floatels and construction jobs. Salvage and rescue operations are also important aspects of this. The loading of oil tankers offshore by means of buoys or fixtures on the seabed, is still another feature of Norwegian offshore activities.
Offshore service vessels
Common term for specialized vessels used during the exploration, development and production phases of oil and gas at sea.
Oljearbeidernes Fellessammenslutning (Stavanger) - Norwegian federation of trade unions in the oil industry.
Offshoren'ringens Forhandlingsutvalg - negotiating committee for the offshore industry.
Offshore Galveston Lightering Area
Officer In Charge
Oil spill compensation
ompensation for oil spills is internationally regulated by two conventions - The Civil Liability Convention - CLC - (i.e. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage - 1969) regulating the shipowners' liability, and The Fund Convention (i.e. International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971), with a fund financed by the cargo owners (oil companies) paying compensation if the shipowner cannot be held responsible, or if compensation paid is not adequate, with a maximum limitation clause.
The last section of the drill pipe to be cemented in place. Also called Inner Conductor or Production Casing.
Ship carrying crude oil or refined products. If a ship is equipped to carry several types of cargo simultaneously, the ship type is called Parcel tanker. A shuttle tanker is a tanker carrying oil from offshore oil fields to terminals. An oil tanker especially built for the transportation of refined oilproducts, often with tanks painted or coated on the inside, is called a product carrier.
Oljeindustriens Landsforening (Stavanger) - Federation of oil industry employers.
Office of Management and Budget (U.S.)
Office of Marine Safety (U.S.)
The phase where the oil/gas production is started through the main pipe.
Oil Pollution Act (USA)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Vienna)
Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest.
Oljeserviceselskapenes Landsforening - The Association of Norwegian Oil Industry Service Companies.
Offshore Support Vessel
Protection and Indemnity Insurance
The largest bulk carrier which can pass through the Panama Canal fully loaded (approximately 80 ,000 dwt.).
Abbreviation for passenger(s). Used in cruiseshipping and on passenger ferries.
The part of the reservoir which may be exploited economically.
NATO Planning Board for Ocean Shipping (Brussels)
The drill bit's speed through the sediments.
The sediment's ability to let hydrocarbons pass through.
Vessel constructed for the laying of pipes on the sea bed.
Paris Memorandum of Understanding - European port-state control
Cargo or profit sharing by cooperating companies in lines or liner conferences.
Polish classification society.
The initial extraction phase when the oil/gas is emitted naturally from the reservoir.
Specialized ship pumping oil through flexible pipelines from the seabed.
Platform equipped for the production of oil and gas.
Flag state protection of own shipping by the elimination of certain competitive elements (see also Flag discrimination).
Polish Seafarers' Union (formerly S-FUF or MR).
Platform Supply Vessel.
Radio Advisory Service (UK)
The offered/agreed price for the transportation of goods.
Ratio between Gross Tonnage/Net Tonnage/Deadweight
Approximate conversion figures: 1 NT = 1.7 GT 1 GT = 1.5 dwt. These figures are applicable for tankers and dry cargo vessels up to approximately 25,000 dwt., but not for reefers, ro-ro-ships, passenger ships, etc. For large tank- and bulkships (approximately 100,000 dwt. and above) 1GT is approximately 2 dwt.
Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s).
Old term for the measuring of ships, not to be used anymore. (One register ton is 100 cubic feet or 2.93 cubic metres).
Registro Italiano - Italian classification society.
Rederienes Landsforening - Association of Norwegian short-sea shipowners.
Ro-ro-ship (Roll on - Roll off)
The cargo is driven on board and ashore, either by means of own engine (cars/trailers), or by means of special trucks. There are three main areas: -Ro-ro-ship operating in lines carries containers, pallets, flats or general cargo, and any type of cargo that can be driven on board. -Ro-ro-ship for the transportation of new automobiles (specialised: Pure Car Carrier - PCC), may also carry other rolling cargo. -Ro-ro-ferries carrying a combination of rolling cargo (cars/lorries/trailers) and passengers.
Worker in the oil and gas industry.
Remote Operated Vehicle
The former Soviet classification society.
South African cooperation forum
South American Free Trade Association
Search and Rescue
Segregated Ballast Tanks - tanks in a tanker solely used for ballast.
Seabed Logging Vessel
Senior Dynamic Positioning Officer
Special drawing rights
South-East Asian Treaty Organization - defence alliance.
Vessel mapping gelogical structures in the seabed by firing air guns transmitting sound waves into the bottom of the sea. The ecco of the shot is captured by listening devices/hydrophones being towed behind the vessel. A seismic ship provides data which is an intrinsic part of the material determining if and when a test drilling should be initiated.
Movable installation consisting of a deck on stilts, fastened to two or more pontoons. When in operation, the pontoons are filled with water and lowered beneath the surface. The installation is normally kept in position by a number of anchors, but may also be fitted with dynamic positioning equipment (DPE). Usually fitted with own propulsion machinery (max. water depths 600 - 800 metres).
A deck above the vessel's main deck not included in the gross tonnage. Originally a lightweight structure to shelter the cargo on the main deck from adverse weather conditions. A closed shelterdecker is constructed to allow access through the hatches to the 'tweendeck, taking cargo on one or both levels.
Person who - on behalf of shipowner/shipper - negotiates a deal for the transportation of cargo at an agreed price. Shipbrokers are also active when shipping companies negotiate the purchasing and selling of ships, both secondhand tonnage and newbuilding contracts.
Short Sea Shipping
Short distance international trade. Commonly used for trading between countries in the European Union.
Buoy-loader - see Oil tanker.
Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminal Operators
Senter for Internasjonal Økonomi og Skipsfart ved Norges Handelshoyskole i Bergen - Norwegian center for maritime economics (Bergen).
Ship Inspection Report Programme
Seafarers' International Union (USA)
Goods stocked by the Chief Steward or Purser, sold for private use or consumption by the crew.
Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (IMO, London)
Rate for single voyage based on the market situation on the day.
Sveriges Redareforening, Gothenburg - Swedish Shipowners' Association.
Ship permanently stationed in the vicinity of an installation with the task of evacuating the rig-crew in an emergency. Also carrying out guard duty keeping other ships away from the installation.
International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (IMO, London)
Dockworker handling loading/discharging. Term also used on companies delivering such services.
Ships Taken Up From Trade - merchant vessels chartered by the military.
Movable installation constructed for drilling operations in shallow waters, where it is lowered until it rests on the seabed (max. water depth 30 - 40 metres).
EU- rule that decisions should be taken on the lowest possible level, e.g. that any case should be decided nationally.
The largest tank vessel which can pass through the Suez Canal fully loaded (120,000 -165,000 dwt.).
Brazilian shipping organization representing the authorities.
Person employed by shipowner or shipping company/charterer of a ship or a shipper of goods to supevise cargo handling operations. Sometimes called Superintendent. The Supercargo was formerly enlisted as a crew member; now stationed in ports.
Vessel transporting stores and equipment to drilling rigs or installations being built or in the production phase. Often called Straight Supply, or Platform Supply Vessel (PSV).
Seafarers' Union of Russia, Moscow
Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull - fast and economical hull design, primarily used for highspeed ferries, etc.
Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests.
The ship is hired for one voyage, but under T/C terms.
Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
Any combination of ropes and blocks the multiply power. The equipment on a vessel used to perform working tasks on the vessel.
Discussions between USA and the EU concerning a Transatlantic Free Trade Area
Ship carrying liquid bulk cargoes.
Trans-Alaska Pipeline Act
Trans Alaska Pipeline System
TARV - Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
EPA Technical Assist Team
Tension Leg Platform
Floating platform or loading buoy fastened to the seabed with vertical chains or stays etc. kept in position by its own buoyancy.
Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. The container carrying capacity of a vessel, expressed in the number of TEUs it can load (standard containers of 20x8x8 feet).
The hiring of a vessel for a specified period of time.
Transport Internationale Routier - International customs' convention.
The transportation of one ton cargo over a distance of one kilometre.
Foreman on a drilling rig.
Tanker Owners' Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liabililty for Oil Pollution (London)
Ships trading where they can get cargo.
The main oil pipeline.
Trade Union Advisory Committee - advisory committee representing employees in the OECD.
Union General de Trabajadores - Spanish TUC.
United Kingdom/Continent Bordeaux/Hamburg range
Ultra Large Crude Carrier - oil tanker of 300,000+ dwt.
Actually the "umbilical cord" - lifeline with air, hot water and other necessities connecting diver/diving bell with the mother ship or rig.
UN Commission on International Trade and Law
United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Geneva)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
United States Atlantic Coast
U.S. Coast Guard
United States Gulf (of Mexico)
US Maritime Commission
United States North of Hatteras
United States West Coast
Verband Deutscher Reeder - German Shipowners' Association.
Very Large Crude Carrier - oil tanker between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.
Contract of carriage where the charterer pays for the use of the vessel's cargo spaces for one or more voyages. Payment is calculated per ton goods carried. The owner pays all operating costs.
Vessel Traffic System
An important task to maintain pressure in the reservoir.
Water Separation Plant
see Dehydration Plant.
Paraffin wax which may cause production problems if condensed in production pipelines or in the valves.
West Coast South America
Heavy and strong construction installed on the surface string or conductor pipe as foundation for further pressure regulating equipment.
World Federation of Trade Unions
Speculative well drilling.
Programme for actions to increase/stimulate production from a well.
In the tanker segment of shipping, nearly all trip-chartering is done on the basis of the freight-rate system Worldscale (W), which is a method of calculation of payment for the transport of oil by ships, for a single or several consecutive voyages. Worldscale is a table giving the amount of dollars per ton oil for each of a number of standard routes. The rates listed in the table - the socalled flat rates - are termed Worldscale 100 (W100). Large tankers need a lower W than smaller vessels to make a profit. The flat rate is the rate per ton which gives a standard vessel (at present a 75,000 dwt. tanker) earnings of USD 12,000 per day on a T/C-basis for the stipulated voyage. If the flat rate is USD 10.- per metric ton, the rate level at W50 will be 50 per cent of the base rate at W100, i.e. USD 5.00 per ton. The flat rate W100 should make a profit for the "standard vessel", regardless of the voyage for which the ship is chartered. Worldscale is revised annually, and the calculations include both fixed and variable expenses. The purpose of the Worldscale is to enable both owner and charterer to compare easily the returns on alternative voyages.